On the first day of December we will tell you about the Arctic Circle, and how they build buildings where temperatures reach -53.7 degrees Celsius.
Salekhard city is the capital of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Tyumen region. It is the only city located right on the Arctic Circle - one of the five main parallels Earth.
Salekhard is contemporary administrative, cultural and business center, located on the border of subarctic and temperate climates. Arctic determine climate of the region. As we hear "Siberia" the first thing we think is cold and frost. And rightly so! The duration of snow cover is 210 days, and the heating season is 292 days. ** Minimum average temperatures** for January are -29.7 degrees Celsius and 9.5 degrees for July. The amplitude is from -53.7 to 32.9 degrees Celsius (about 90 degrees!). Just in Salekhard nothing to trevozhim- call it the gas capital of Russia (in the region harvested 75 percent of the gas Russia) and warm literally "run".
Due to Salekhard gas industry has become a big construction site. The shortage of housing, with a population of just over 48,000, is one of the acute social problems and therefore priority axis of development is the construction of residential buildings and such social services, schools, kindergartens (and what), offices and shops.
As you might have guessed, is a specific area that puts a lot of problems in the design, planning, construction and if you want and operation of buildings in Salekhard. When designing should know Russian legislation, which is not an easy task. Constantly changing, there are local regulations and generally much more numerous and stringent regulations on absolutely everything you can think of and yet so many things and you are not expected. Design parts that are included in the construction documentation sometimes exceed 50!
Planning the construction is essential, again due to weather conditions. Building materials are delivered in the summer on the Ob River, and winter-in cellar (through the snow) to the railway line in Labytnangi. The delivery of everything is thousands of miles expensive extra.
All buildings are built raised pilots (like concrete columns). The soil is eternally frozen ("vechnaya merzlota") and "national treasure." The warmth of the building can warm this frozen layer and the building to sink into the ground is softened. To avoid this, all the buildings are raised on stilts to form ventilated podpolie with a minimum height of 120-140 cm.
Ventilated podpolie closes with sheet metal, ceramic granite or other stone materials, leaving grids for ventilation.
Protruding "stuff" on the picture above and below that are called heat stabilizers (seasonally-acting cooling devices) and placed near the pilots. They have the task to freeze the soil for several years and increase its load-bearing capacity.
All buildings, regardless of their function, are implemented with external walls of layered installation and poradak thickness of ~ 80-100 cm: masonry 40 cm, 25 cm effective thermal insulation, vapor barrier, air layer system for ventilated curtain wall (metal cassettes, ceramic granite) in the remaining 15-35 cm. The most commonly used for glazing PVC windows with double glazing.
Elevation ± 0,00 almost always at least 2 meters above the elevation of the terrain. This leads to long staircases (external and often covered) and even longer ramps for access to buildings.
Avoid plaster and everything glued survived only one season again because of the temperatures.
Another interesting aspect that probably made you notice is the color design of facades, too bright and bold can you say? Now imagine a white winter, and the moment that is just night all the time. Then everything that brings a little color and humor is welcome! Salekhard-Energo care city lit like a Christmas tree all the time, as architects of color to the surroundings.
Not forgotten are the children for whom there are numerous entertainment.
I hope you found this article interesting!
Photos and text by architectural studio "Studio Creative"